To fix, I simply twisted off the base, spray-primed it and added three coats of high gloss white spray paint I had left over from another project. The white helped make the piece look more modern and hid the chips nicely. If I were more confident in spray painting marble I probably would have done it although looking back, I don't necessarily mind the added layer of texture. I let the base dry outside (fortunately this was the one day it didn't rain), screwed back on the top and was immediately satisfied at how it all came together.
To make the table appear taller so that it was (or at least looked) proportional with my sofa, I added a stack of magazines, a glass vase which I hope to fill with flowers in the spring and two square mirrors stacked on top of each other. The glass and the mirror keep the table and accessories from becoming too overpowering, drawing attention to the base of the table almost as if it were a piece of sculpture.
Long story short, if you're not ready to give up on a piece or are in the position in which you are forced to deal with what you have, head to the hardware store and pick up a can of spray paint. Read the instructions because, depending on the material, you may need to sand or prime before you spray.